"Selection of carvings from
1. The Myth of the Milesians
Our people are the Milesians of Irish Mythology. The story of the Milesians is a created myth found in Lebor Gabála Érenn (The Book of the Taking of Ireland), a medieval pseudo-history written by Irish Monks which dates from about 1,100 CE. This wondrous work of imagination, history and geography does an amazing job linking the prehistoric Irish race to the Old Testament of the Bible from Adam to the time of the Israelites in Egypt. And along the way, it explains the invasion of Ireland by a new people with new technology and how they came to be the Over-Kings, the elitist, military aristocracy of Ireland.
According to Irish mythology, the Milesians traveled the known world in the style of Odysseus, sojourning in many locations over hundreds of years. The Milesians were the people of the city of Miletus, an ancient Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia. Reportedly, Miletus was settled by Cretans during the Minoan Period and continued to thrive during the Mycenaean Period. Miletus would have a second incarnation as an Ionian Greek city. And, we want to focus on the destruction of Miletus in the 12th century BCE. Anthropologists have written about the Bronze Age Collapse where many civilizations of the eastern Mediterranean simply ceased to exist. And the destruction and subsequent abandonment of Miletus was a contemporaneous event.
"Dorian Invasion," <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dorian_invasion>
8 March 2019.
The fact that several civilizations collapsed around 1,175 BCE, has led to the suggestion that the Sea Peoples may have been involved in the end of the Hittite, Mycenaean, and Mitanni kingdoms. The American Hittitologist Gary Beckman writes, on page 23 of Akkadica 120 (2000):
A terminus ante quem for the destruction of the Hittite empire has been recognised in an inscription carved at Medinet Habu in Egypt in the eighth year of Ramesses III (1175 BCE). This text narrates a contemporary great movement of peoples in the eastern Mediterranean, as a result of which "the lands were removed and scattered to the fray. No land could stand before their arms, from Hatti, Kode, Carchemish, Arzawa, Alashiya, on being cut off. [cut down/ raised]"
"Sea Peoples" <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sea_Peoples> 5 August 2015.
The myth states that the Milesians sailed from the Greek city of Miletus on the coast of Anatolia south and sojourned in Egypt during the time of the Israelites (c. 1,250 to 1,150 BCE). Departing Egypt, they sailed north to Scythia on the Black Sea where they sojourned for hundreds of years. From Scythia, the Milesians began their epic journey west, passing through the Pillars of Hercules, and landing on the Atlantic Shore of the Iberian Peninsula.
Research Note: The coracle is a small oval boat built by stretching a hide over a woven willow frame which is waterproofed with tar. These traditional Celtic boats are still in use today in Wales, Scotland, and Ireland. The use of coracles in pre-Roman Britain was attested to by Julius Caesar during his mid-First Century BCE invasion of that isle. But more importantly, the use of the exact same boats was also attested to by Caesar during his subsequent invasion of Iberia.
The currach is a traditional Celtic boat considerably larger than the coracle which is found today in Ireland, Scotland and Wales. It's not feasible that an entire ethnic race could traverse the Mediterranean Sea from Egypt to Spain in so small a vessel as the traditional Celtic coracle even though they had hundreds of years to make the voyage. However, if there is any truth to the the myth of Milesians in Egypt, they would have been exposed to the Egyptian felucca which plies the waters of the Nile to his day. And, with that technology, the Milesians may have crafted a vessel which was the prototype of the larger Celtic currach of today.
The myth tells how the Milesian King Breogan built a tower in Brigantium in Gallaecia from which his son Ith spied the green Isle of Ireland. The sons of Mile Espaine and the sons of Ith sailed to Ireland where they defeated the three over-kings and divided Ireland amongst themselves.
Anthropology, archaeology, and linguistic research indicate that the Gascon-Iberian Celts migrated c. 2,250 BCE from Gaul and settled in Gascony and Pyrenees-Atlantiques in modern France and Gallaecia and Asturias in modern Spain where they became a trading nation along the Atlantic coast. From the ports of Lapurdum in Gascony and Xixon in Asturias and Brigantium in Gallaecia, the Milesians sailed into the Mare Gallaecum to spread their Celtic language and culture and technology to the peoples of the Atlantic Fringe.
A number of authors have postulated that there still is a cultural continuum in Atlantic Europe, forming a cultural unit which has its roots in prehistoric times but remained until today mostly thanks to sea trade. Geographers also mention the influence of the natural environment in the construction of a similar cultural landscape along the western European coasts. . .
Atlantic Europe is a cultural reality that stretches along the coastal fringe of Europe, from Norway to South-Central Portugal (roughly down to the Santarém area), and including Britain and Ireland. Bob Quinn in his documentary series Atlantean speculates that western European Celtic culture is actually an earlier, pre-Celtic, Atlantic culture that included Atlantic Europe and people of the Maghreb such as Berbers and that it continues today."Atlantic Europe" < https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atlantic_Europe> 27 July 2015.
2. Locating the Descendants of the Gascon-Iberian Celts: Genotype vs. Phenotype
Research Note: This is not a thesis, merely an observation.
There are descendants of the Gascon-Iberian Celts along the entire Atlantic Fringe from Scandinavia through the British Isles to the Iberian Peninsula. But, we are a hidden minority. So, how do we identify the Gascon-Iberian Celts in the modern world?
Interestingly, the descendants of DF27 are not highly represented in the population of modern Galicia from which the legends say they departed for Ireland. Instead, the highest population density with the yDNA markers for DF27 and the highest population density with blood type O and Rh negative is found in the Basque region of France north of the Pyrenees. Why? Before they left for Ireland, our Celtic ancestors left their DNA and blood type amongst the Basque peoples but not necessarily their language.
I am not the first person to identify certain (genotype) anomalies among the Basque people of France.
-They have the highest population density of Type O and Rh Neg in the world. And, Type A has a consistently high distribution in Western Europe.
"Rh Blood Group System" <https://en.wikipedia.org/> 31 July 2015.
-They have the highest population density of yDNA marker DF27 in the world.
|"Haplogroup R1b," Europedia GenWeb page <http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_R1b_Y-DNA.shtml#DF27> 31 July 2015.|
-The Basques live in an insular society even to this day.
"History of the Basques" <https://en.wikipedia.org/> 31 July 2015.
-I am simply putting those observations together.
The argument is that there is a high propensity for phenotype X among population Y. This is due to the presence or absence of recessive genes.
-Some descendants of DF27 have a higher propensity for blue/ violet eyes.
-Some descendants of DF27 have red hair, freckles, and pale skin.
-The average folks of Wales have dark hair, frequently dark eyes, and a pale complexion.
-The average folks of western Ireland have dark hair, dark eyes, and a pale to olive complexion.
-The average folks of Basque France have dark hair, dark eyes, and an olive complexion.
My observation is that, the descendants of DF27 should have a significantly higher presence of Type O and A and Rh Negative blood. And many descendants of DF27 can be differentiated from the general population by the light eyed, red haired, freckled, pale skinned phenotype.
Scientifically, why is this important. It isn't. This is just an observation.
-The Scot/ Irish phenotype with a pale complexion, red-hair, and freckles make up 10% of the population of Ireland. I'd bet they are descendants of DF27.
-Therefore, descendants of DF27 in Ireland, Scotland and Wales should stick out like a "red-headed stepchild."
3. On to Ireland
From antiquity, the Greeks and the Phoenicians traded in the Mare Internum.Both the Greeks and the Carthaginians (heirs of the Phoenicians) sailed beyond the Pillars of Hercules into the Mare Gallaecum. And thus, our Celtic ancestors of Iberia would have known of the Emerald Isle just over the northern horizon.
"Cassiterides" <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cassiterides> 16 August 2015.
The myth from Lebor Gabála Érenn (The Book of the Taking of Ireland) tells how the Milesian King Breogan built a tower in Brigantium in Gallaecia from which his son Ith spied the Isle of Ireland. Today, there is the 2nd Century CE Tower of Heracles. This tower is reported to be set on the site of a first tower which was erected by the Phoenicians. The Gaels glimpsed the emerald shores of distant Ireland from the top of the original tower. And, the sons of Mile Espaine and the sons of Ith sailed to Ireland where they defeated the three over-kings and divided Ireland amongst themselves.
According to Irish history/ mythology, the Milesians invaded Ireland c. 1,000 BCE. Launching from the Celtic Promontory (Promunturium Celticum), our people came down to the shore of the Mare Gallaecum with their where-with-all and put their families and probably livestock in the boats. They eventually worked their way up the coast in their flotilla of currachs, probably landing in Armorica (Brittany, France). From Armorica, they crossed the Celtic Sea to Ireland where they became the Over-Kings of Ireland. Having populated Ireland, their descendants, the Scoti, went on to populate Scotland and parts of Wales.
So, who were the Gaelic tribes who loaded out from the Celtic Promontory into the Mare Gallaecum and risked their lives to sail to Ireland? Indeed, there were multiple Celtic tribes on the north of Iberia. Perhaps some of the tribes sent their sons; perhaps some of the tribes sent none. From the names of Irish places, we can infer a few of the tribes' names.
The Albiones/ Albioni were a Gallaecian tribe of the north coast of Iberia. The Albioni were mentioned by Pliny (c. 77 CE).
The name Albiones is also attested on the "stele of Nicer Clutosi" found near Vegadeo. . .
"Albiones" <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albiones> 6 March 2019.
The Albiones name is believed to be the source for the name Albion, the Romanized name of Britain, and Alba, the Romanized name for Scotland. Were the Albioni one of the tribes who sent their sons to invade Ireland c. 1,000 BCE?
In the Lebor Gabála Érenn, a medieval Christian pseudo-history of Ireland, the Milesians are the Gaels who came from Iberia and settled in Ireland. They represent the Irish people. They are named after the character Míl Espáine, which is the Irish form of the Latin Miles Hispaniae ("Soldier of Hispania").
"Milesians (Irish)" <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milesians_(Irish)> 17 July 2015.
And, the bards sang of the Milesians over the many generations,
They came from a land beyond the sea,And, lo, where afar o'er ocean shines
And now o'er the western main
Set sail, in their good ships, gallantly,
From the sunny land of Spain.
'Oh, where's the Isle we've seen in dreams,
Our destin'd home or grave?'
Thus sung they as, by the morning's beams,
They swept the Atlantic wave.
A sparkle of radiant green,
As though in that deep lay emerald mines,
Whose light through the wave was seen.
''Tis Innisfail—'tis Innisfail!'
Rings o'er the echoing sea;
While, bending to heav'n, the warriors hail
That home of the brave and free.
Then turn'd they unto the Eastern wave,
Where now their Day-God's eye
A look of such sunny omen gave
As lighted up sea and sky.
Nor frown was seen through sky or sea,
Nor tear o'er leaf or sod,
When first on their Isle of Destiny
Our great forefathers trod.
"Moore's Melodies," Atlas and Cyclopedia of Ireland, 1900 <http://www.libraryireland.com/Atlas/Home.php> 12 July 2015.
Those who do not wish to be associated with a mythological people may choose to disavow descent from the Milesians. However, we are still the descendants of the Gascon-Iberian Celts who migrated to Iberia and their descendants, the Gaels, who migrated to Ireland and then Scotland and Wales. I, for one, choose to be a son of the Milesians.The Book of Invasions ends with the Milesians, or Sons of Míl Espáine, the first Gaelic speakers and probably the earliest “Celtic” people. They are thought to have brought iron to Ireland, representing the beginning of the Iron Age. During their invasion, the wives of the Irish High Kings, and matron Goddesses of Ireland, Banba, Fodla and Ériu, asked that the new land be named in their honour. The name Éire remains a poetic name for Ireland today. The Tuatha Dé Danann were exiled underground, where they represent the sidhe, or faery folk, of Ireland.
"The Celtic Journey," <https://thecelticjourney.wordpress.com/tag/milesians/> 17 July 2015.
4. The Kingdom of Munster
The Kingdoms of Ireland
Coming from the Celtic Sea, the Milesians sailed out of the west onto the shores of Ireland where there are two prominent estuaries: Galway Bay and the River Shannon. Circumstantial evidence indicates that our Gaels of northwestern Iberia settled on the Shannon in what would become the Kingdom of Munster.The Kingdom of Munster (Irish: Ríocht Mhumhain) was a kingdom of Gaelic Ireland which existed in the south-west of the island from at least the 1st century BC until 1118. According to traditional Irish history found in the Annals of the Four Masters, the kingdom originated as the territory of the Clanna Dedad (sometimes known as the Dáirine), an Érainn tribe of Irish Gaels. . .The Dáirine (named for Dáire mac Dedad), or Clanna Dedad, a major branch of the Érainn, were a significant power in Gaelic Ireland, providing several High Kings of Ireland at the Hill of Tara in addition to ruling Munster. . .The Chronicle of Ireland places the start of these rulers at roughly the 1st century BCE. Outside of Gaelic sources, the predominant people of Munster, the Érainn, along with other tribes in the area are attested to in Ptolemy's Geographia where they are known as the Iverni. . . .
A great revival of power for Munster occurred in the 2nd century AD, as one of their kings, Conaire Cóem established himself as High King of Ireland. This was a time for pioneering figures, as major High Kings representing other Gaelic groups in Ireland also lived such as Conn Cétchathach founder of the Connachta and Cathair Mór a prominent king of the Laigin. Conaire Cóem holds an important place in Irish genealogies as the forefather of the Síl Conairi. His sons; Cairpre Músc (ancestor of the Múscraige and Corcu Duibne), Cairpre Baschaín (ancestor of the Corcu Baiscind) and Cairpre Riata (ancestor of the Dál Riata) founded kinship groups which would play a major role in Munster, while the latter moved north to Ulster and eventually established Alba (better known as Scotland) in Great Britain.
"Kingdom of Munster" <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Munster> 6 March 2019.
The Érainn were the predominant tribe of Munster. And, their descendants would migrate to Scotland and Wales.
The Gangani were a people of ancient Ireland who are referred to in Ptolemy's 2nd century Geography as living in the south-west of the island, probably near the mouth of the River Shannon, between the Auteini to the north and the Uellabori to the south. There appears to have been a people of the same name in north-west Wales, as Ptolemy calls the Llŷn Peninsula the "promontory of the Gangani."
"The Gangani" <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gangani> 6 March 2019.
The Gangani were one of the tribes of Gaels who migrated to Wales. When did the descendants of the Érainn cross the Irish Sea and where did they settle?
5. The Descendants of the Gascon-Iberian Celts, the Gaels & the Érainn in Wales
One reason for the start of this investigation was to answer a few outstanding questions:
a. Why doesn't our Lewis yDNA test results match the typical test results for people of Wales?
-Family oral history states emphatically that "We was from Wales."
-yDNA results prove that our ancestors were Gascon-Iberian Celts, probably from pre-historic Gallaecia, who ex-migrated to Ireland.
b. Who were our Lewis ancestors who emigrated to Ireland?
-When the Island of Britain--England and Wales--and subsequently the Island of Ireland were populated c. 2,100 BCE, the settlers were the same ethnic group, the Atlantic Celts [L21], and they spoke the same Brythonic/ p-Celt language.
-Sometime after 1,000 BCE, something changed the language of Ireland from Brythonic/ p-Celt to Gaelic/ q-Celt. Irish mythology states the something was the Milesian Invasion.
-And after the Roman evacuation in the 5th century CE, the Gaelic language was taken to Britain.
c. Who were the ethnic Irish who populated Scotland after the Roman evacuation?
The Kingdoms of Scotland and England
-The Gaelic kingdoms of Scotland began in about 485 CE when ethnic Gaels from Ulster put ashore on the Argyll Peninsula. There, they established the Gaelic Kingdom of Dál Riata which spanned from Antrim across the Irish Sea to Argyll. In Argyll, the Gaels, now Romanized to Scoti, competed with the Kingdom of Caledonia and the kingdoms of the Picts.
-In about 730 CE, the erstwhile Kingdom of Dál Riata was subsumed by the Kingdom of the Picts. But, the Gaelic legacy continued on through the ethnicity of the people and the Gaelic language which they spoke.
-In 900 CE, the Kingdom of Alba (Pictish/ Gaelic Scotland) was formed from the disparate petty kingdoms of Picts and Gaels in Scotland. Even after the Norman Invasion, the Pictish-Gaels and Scoto-Normans preserved the kingdom until the Scottish Wars of Independence.[c. 485] The Scotti of Irish Dál Riata begin to colonise Argyll at Cantyre [Kintyre]. Apparently, Drust [Over-king of the Picts] does nothing to stop them, and may not even know about them at first. He has to deal with pagan rebellions in the north, reason enough to be distracted from the west.
 Brudei hands the invading Dál Riatan Scotti a heavy defeat at Lora (or Delgu/Telocho), and lays waste to their territory in the west.
 Aedan mac Gabrán of Dál Riata invades the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia and attacks King Æthelfrith at the Battle of Degsastan. By fighting and defeating Dál Riata, Æthelfrith secures the alliance of Dál Riata's enemies, the southern Picts.
"The Kingdom of Caledonia" <http://www.historyfiles.co.uk/KingListsBritain/GaelsPictland.htm> 9 August 2015.Dál Riata was a Gaelic kingdom that included parts of western Scotland and northeastern Ulster Ireland, across the North Channel. In the late 6th–early 7th century it encompassed roughly what is now Argyll and Lochaber in Scotland and also County Antrim in Ulster. To its east and north was Pictland. . .
[Bede's account states that] Dál Riata was conquered by Irish Gaels led by a certain Reuda. Old Gaelic means "portion" or "share" and is usually followed by the name of an eponymous founder. Bede's tale may come from the same root as the Irish tales of Cairpre Riata and his brothers, the Síl Conairi (sons/descendants of Conaire Mór, Conaire Cóem). . .
The presence of Gaelic in Scotland was seen as the result of either a large-scale migration from Ireland, or a takeover by Irish Gaelic elites (like the Norman conquest of England). However, this theory is no longer universally accepted. In his academic paper Were the Scots Irish?, archeologist Dr Ewan Campbell says that there is no archeological or place-name evidence of a migration or takeover. This lack of archeological evidence was previously noted by Professor Leslie Alcock. Archeological evidence shows that Argyll was different from Ireland, before and after the supposed migration, but that it also formed part of the Irish Sea province with Ireland, being easily distinguished from the rest of Scotland. Campbell suggests that Argyll and Antrim formed a "maritime province", united by the sea and isolated from the rest of Scotland by the mountainous ridge called the Druim Alban. This allowed a shared language to be maintained through the centuries; Argyll remained Gaelic-speaking while the rest of Scotland became Brittonic speaking. . .
Research Note: The original modern language of Britain and Ireland was Brittonic which was brought to those islands by the Atlantic Celts [L21]. Gaelic was brought to Ireland and later Britain by the Gaels [DF27] of Iberia. The Picts, who populated the Scottish Highlands, spoke Pictish which is believed to also be a Brittonic language.
The kingdom of Dál Riata reached its greatest extent in the reign of Áedán mac Gabráin. It is said that Áedán was consecrated as king by Columba. If true, this was one of the first such consecrations known. As noted, Columba brokered the alliance between Dál Riata and the Northern Uí Néill. This pact was successful, first in defeating Báetan mac Cairill, then in allowing Áedán to campaign widely against his neighbours, as far afield as Orkney and lands of the Maeatae, on the River Forth. Áedán appears to have been very successful in extending his power, until he faced the Bernician king Æthelfrith at Degsastan c. 603. . . for as late as the 730s, armies and fleets from Dál Riata fought alongside the Uí Néill. . .
Since it has been thought that Dál Riata swallowed Pictland to create the Kingdom of Alba, the later history of Dál Riata has tended to be seen as a prelude to future triumphs. The annals make it clear that the Cenél Gabraín lost any earlier monopoly of royal power in the late 7th century and in the 8th, when Cenél Loairn kings such as Ferchar Fota, his son Selbach, and grandsons Dúngal Muiredach are found contesting for the kingship of Dál Riata. The long period of instability in Dál Riata was only ended by the conquest of the kingdom by Óengus mac Fergusa, king of the Picts, in the 730s. After a third campaign by Óengus in 741, Dál Riata then disappears from the Irish records for a generation.
"Dál Riata" <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dal_Riata> 6 August 2015.The Kingdom of Alba refers to the Kingdom of Scotland between the deaths of Donald II (Domnall mac Causantin) in 900, and of Alexander III in 1286 which then led indirectly to the Scottish Wars of Independence. The name is one of convenience, as throughout this period the elite and populace of the Kingdom were predominantly Pictish-Gaels or later Pictish-Gaels and Scoto-Norman, and differs markedly from the period of the Stuarts, in which the elite of the kingdom were (for the most part) speakers of Middle English, which later evolved and came to be called Lowland Scots.
"Kingdom of Alba" <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Alba> 6 August 2015.
d. Were there ethnic Irish communities in Wales?
The following articles prove that much of Wales--Dyfed, Brycheiniog and Gwynedd--was occupied by Gaelic speaking Irish at times between 150 and 1,045 CE.This era [the 6th century CE] was also marked by a Gaelic presence in Great Britain, in what is today Wales, the Déisi founded Dyfed and the Uí Liatháin founded Brycheiniog, to the north, the Dál Riata are held to have established a territory in Argyll and the Hebrides. The Romans called these Gaels "Scoti".
"The Gaels" <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaels> 2 August 2015.
6. The Irish Kingdoms of Wales
The Kingdoms of Wales
a. The Kingdom of Dyfed (350 to 920 CE)The Kingdom of Dyfed is one of several Welsh petty kingdoms that emerged in 5th-century post-Roman Britain in south-west Wales based on the former tribal lands of the Déisi from c. 350 until it was subsumed into Deheubarth in 920. . .
In the latter days of the Roman Empire through to the early post-Roman period, the Déisi Muman peoples, a name which originates in Irish as meaning "vassal", migrated to the region between 350 and 400 AD. Their migration may have been with the support of Magnus Maximus, who contracted with them to become vassals and seafaring defenders of Britain from Wales to Cornwall, following standard Roman policies. Gaelic became, or remained, the predominant language of the region, as evidenced by twenty stones dated to this periode with Irish inscriptions. . .
Dyfed may have originally occupied the area that bordered the rivers Teifi [vic. Cardigan], Gwili, Tywi, and included contemporary Pembrokeshire, the western part of contemporary Carmarthenshire, and with the town of Carmarthen. Dyfed eventually comprised at least seven cantrefi: Cemais, Deugleddyf, Emlyn, Cantref Gwarthaf, Pebidlog, Penfro and Rhos, with an approximate area of about 2284 km2. During times of strength, the kingdom expanded to additionally cover the Ystrad Tywi Valley of the [river] Tywi, including Cydweli Gwyr, and even bordered Brycheiniog. Dyfed lost the Ystrad Tywi region to Ceredigion, another petty kingdom, in the late 7th century. . .
Dyfed was subject to extensive raids during the Viking Age between the 8th and 11th centuries, causing social and political instability, and with the Vikings establishing settlements in southern Dyfed. By the latter part of the 9th century, the rulers of Dyfed had grown cautious of the influence of the sons of Rhodri the Great [King of Gwynedd], and sought out an alliance and the patronage of Alfred the Great of England. The precise nature of the relationship between King Alfred and the rulers in Wales remains unclear, whether a transitory alliance or a formal mediatization of the Welsh rulers to the king of England. . .
In about 904, Dyfed's ruler, Llywarch ap Hyfaidd, died, leaving his daughter Elen as his heiress. Elen was married to Hywel, ruler of neighbnoring Seisyllwg [Ceredigion] and grandson of Rhodri the Great through his second son Cadell. Through his marriage to Elen, Hywel incorporated Dyfed into an enlarged realm to be known as Deheubarth, meaning the "south part", and later went on to conquer Powys and Gwynedd.
"Kingdom of Dyfed," <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Dyfed> 2 August 2015.
b. The Kingdom of Brycheiniog (450 to 1045 CE)The kingdom of Brycheiniog was probably founded by Irish raiders in the late fifth century. . .Traditionally, it was founded by (and named after) a Hiberno-Welsh prince named Brychan out of the old Welsh kingdom of Garth Madrun (believed to have been centered on Talgarth in the mid 5th century, though this event is shrouded in Legend. Brychan was a son of Anlach, an Irish settler who had peacefully taken control of the area by marrying Marchel, the heiress of Garth Madrun. . .
In the 7th century, the inheritance of a woman, Ceindrych, brought the kingdom into the hands of Cloten of Dyfed and Brycheiniog. The union with Dyfed lasted for about a century, though parts of Brycheiniog may have been granted out as lordships for younger sons. The invasion of Seisyll of the Kingdom of Ceredigion in the mid 8th century separated the kingdoms. During the year 848 the men of Brycheiniog slew King Iudhail of Gwen.
In the 880s, King Elisedd of Brycheiniog was forced by the depredations of Anarawd of Gwynedd and the sons of Rhodri the Great [King of Gwynedd] to pledge homage to Alfred the Great and make his kingdom a vassal of Wessex. Such an alliance may well have been due to Viking pressure, for in the spring of 896 Brycheiniog, Gwent and Gwynllwg were devastated by the Norsemen who had wintered at Quatford near Bridgnorth that year. . .
The land of Brycheiniog was conquered between 1070 and 1093. In 1070 William FitzOsbern, 1st Earl of Hereford invaded the kingdom and defeated three kings of South Wales, but no king of Brycheiniog. King Bleddyn of Brycheiniog, who was alleged to be ruling at the time of the Norman conquest and was said to have been defeated by Bernard de Neufmarché, appears in no historical source before the fifteenth century. . .In other words the Normans were already living there and the kingdom had already been destroyed. The kingdom was subsumed within the Lordship of Brecknock, ruled by Bernard's descendants.
"Brycheiniog" <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brycheiniog> 2 August 2015.
c. The Kingdom of Gwynedd (150 to 470 CE)
As early as the 2nd century AD there may have been an Irish presence in the region as Ptolemy marks the Llyn Peninsula as the Promontory of the Gangani which is also a name he recorded in Ireland. In the late and post-Roman eras, Irish from Leinster are said to have arrived in Ynys Môn (Anglesey) and elsewhere in Northwest Wales, with the name derived from Laigin, or Leinster. The region became known as Venedotia in Latin. The name was initially attributed to a specific Irish colony on Môn [Mona], but broadened to refer to Irish settlers as a whole in north Wales by the 5th century. According to 9th century monk and chronicler Nennius, North Wales was left defenceless by the Roman withdrawal and subject to increasing raids by mauraders from Man and Ireland, a situation which led Cunedda, his sons and their entourage, to migrate in the mid-5th century [c. 450 CE] from Manaw Gododdin (Lothian, in modern Scotland) to settle and defend north Wales against the raiders and bring the region within Romano-British control. . .
Undoubtedly a Brythonic leader of substance established himself in north Wales, and he and his descendants defeated any remaining Irish Gaelic presence and incorporated the settlements into their domain and reoriented the whole of Gwynedd into a Romano-British and "Welsh" outlook. The Welsh of Gwynedd remained conscious of their Romano-British heritage and an affinity with Rome survived long after the Empire retreated from Britain, particularly with the use of Latin in writing and sustaining the Christian religion. . .
Other evidence support Nennius' claim of a leader who came to north Wales and brought the region a measure of stability, though an Irish Gaelic element remained until the mid-5th century.
"Kingdom of Gwynedd" <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_of_Gwynedd> 9 August 2015.Though Manaw Gododdin was located within the territory of modern Scotland, as a part of Yr Hen Ogledd (English: The Old North) it is also an intrinsic part of Welsh history, as both the Welsh and the Men of the North (Welsh: Gwyr y Gogledd) were self-perceived as a single people, collectively referred to as Cymry. The arrival in Wales of Cunedda of Manaw Gododdin in c. 450 is traditionally considered to be the beginning of the history of modern Wales.
"Manaw Gododdin" <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manaw_Gododdin> 9 August 2015.
d. The Wirral Peninsula (c. 893 to 1200)Wirral or the Wirral peninsula in North West England. It is bounded to the west by the River Dee, Wales, forming a boundary with Wales, to the east by the River Mersey and to the north by the Irish Sea. . .
Before the time of the Romans, Wirral was inhabited by a Celtic tribe, the Cornovii. Artefacts discovered in Meols suggest it was an important port from at least 500 BC. Traders came from Gaul and the Mediterranean seeking minerals from North Wales and Cheshire. There are also remains of a small Iron Age fort at Burton, which takes its name (burh-tún) from it.
"Wirral Peninsula" <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wirral_Peninsula> 6 August 2015.
Deva Victrix (now Chester) on the River Dee was a major Roman fortress on the west of England. And from this port, the Romans sent expeditions to Ireland. After the Roman withdrawal c. 410 CE, the Irish used the Roman facilities to disembark in England.The first Viking raids in the west were on islands off the Irish coast in AD 795, two years after the famous raid on Lindisfarne (Northumberland). Semi-permanent settlement in Ireland began in the late 830s in fortified camps at Dublin and elsewhere on the major river systems and coastal havens. In England, Danes had reached York by 867. They over-wintered in Mercia (at Repton, Derbyshire), in 873–4, before heading north and east again. Repton is only 60km from Cheshire, yet our first “confirmed sighting” of Scandinavians on the Dee or Mersey occurs at the surprisingly late date of 893. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that a group of Danes occupied a “deserted city in Wirral which is called Chester”. These included remnants of a force under Hástein which had recently been defeated by Alfred on the banks of the river Severn at Buttington, Montgomeryshire. They were chased off into Wales the following year by the Mercians; this may have been the occasion for the refortification of the derelict Roman defences, although Chester was not recorded as an official fortified burh until 907.
We know rather more about another Viking incident. In 902 the Irish expelled the Vikings from their base at Dublin. This caused political upheavals on both sides of the Irish Sea, and Hiberno-Norse immigration into the Isle of Man and north-west England. . .
Place names also indicate that many of the Norsemen came to Wirral from Ireland, and brought Irish people with them. Prominent Irish names include Liscard (Old Irish lios na carraige, hall at the rock) and Noctorum (cnocc-tírim, hill that’s dry). Irby is from the Old Norse Ira-byr, meaning settlement of the Irish or settlement of Norsemen coming from Ireland. This Irish influence also helps explain the name Dingesmere, the site of the Battle of Brunanburh described in the Anglo Saxon Chronicle entry for AD 937.
"Vikings!" British Archaeology <http://www.archaeologyuk.org/ba/ba103/feat1.shtml> 9 August 2015.
Through the appearance of individual markers on the human genome, our ancestor's path out of Africa, into southwest Asia, and across to Western Europe has been proven. It's actually a simple process: a) match the locations of the donors to the SNP markers found b) play connect the dots. With the addition of dates from ancient archaeological periods and the evolution of the Indo-European language, we can approximate when and where our ancestors were on the timeline of human history.
Tracing the evolution of SNP R-DF27, we learn that we, the families who descend from the Lewis family of Virginia, carry the genes of the Milesians, the Celtic Invaders of Ireland post 1,000 BCE. Our Celtic cousins, L21, were some of the original settlers of Ireland c. 2,100 BCE. And, their DNA is the dominant strain in Ireland, Scotland, Wales and Cornwall; not ours.
We are the pirates and raiders as described in the Brythonic Welsh language. Our Gascon-Iberian/ Gaelic Celt ancestors living in Ireland migrated to or invaded western Wales, England east of the River Dee, and the Argyll Peninsula of Scotland. And, those migrants/ invaders carried their yDNA markers for R-DF27 with them.
We are the interlopers who draped Ireland and Britain with an overlay of Celtic language, art, and culture before and after the Roman Invasion of Britain. And we, their descendants, can stand amongst the current peoples of Ireland, Scotland, and Wales and claim our our Celtic heritage.
Now, we have come to the point where we leave behind archeology, and we can begin with actual histories. [NEXT]