DNA Results: Evolution of SNP R-DF27

"Selection of carvings from
the Castro de Santa Trega" 
<https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/> 16 March 2019.

Research Note: I am not a linguist nor a geneticist nor even a mathematician. So, how can I even begin to approach a conversation on the origins and evolution of markers down the human genome? Pretty simple. I can read and write, add and subtract, and I have the faculty of reason.

Who am I? In truth, I am a combination of all the generations of persons whose histories are compiled herein. Unique to every male descendant is the Y-chromosome which is effectively a copy of his father's DNA. As a result, surname research can be confirmed through yDNA testing. And, I am the donor for the Walden Lewis yDNA test listed on the Lewis Surname DNA Project.

What does DNA analysis tell us? DNA is the definitive answer for personal genealogical research. But, it also tells the history of the migration of entire peoples. National Geographic's Genographic Project is an effort to map the migrations of ethnic groups through man's pre-history. [Research]

1. Evolution of Haplogroup R1b1a1a2a1a2a/ R-DF27 (Updated 5/3/2016)

In the last decade, great strides have been made identifying new SNPs down the human genome. And, anthropologists have been able to match these mutations to specific places on the timeline of human history. With this information, we can affix our forefathers to specific times and places in the migration of modern man.

Back when, anthropologists investigated whether R1b1a1a2 [M269], who emerged during the Neolithic Period, was connected to Cro-Magnon Man and the cave paintings of the refugium in southern France. Subsequently, M269 could have been the group who followed the retreating ice shield north across the land bridge to Britain and Ireland. With new information gained more recently, those possibilities have been put to rest.

[I]n articles published around 2000 it was proposed that this clade [M269] had been in Europe before the last Ice Age. But by 2010, more recent periods such as the European Neolithic have become the focus of proposals. A range of newer estimates for R1b1b2, or at least its dominant parts in Europe, are from 4,000 to a maximum of about 10,000 years ago, and looking in more detail is seen as suggesting a migration from Western Asia via southeastern Europe.

    "Haplogroup R1b" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_R1b> 25 July 2015.

The following is updated as of 7/2015:

The yDNA sequence for our Lewis family has been traced down to DF27. And, the evolution of SNP DF27 is cited by the International Society of Genetic Genealogy.

Research Note: The nomenclature of genetic genealogy is continually changing. Previously, subclades were identified with phylogenetic letters and numbers as in R1b1a2. However with the continuing identification of additional markers down the genome, it is apparent that use of individual marker names is preferred as in M343.

Root (Y-Adam)
• A0-T   AF3, L1085
• • • • BT   M91
• • • • • CT   M168/PF1416
• • • • • • CF   P143/PF2587
• • • • • • • F   L132.1, M89/PF2746
• • • • • • • • GHIJK   F1329/M3658/PF2622/YSC0001299
• • • • • • • • • HIJK   F929/M578/PF3494/S6397
• • • • • • • • • • IJK   L15/M523/PF3492/S137
• • • • • • • • • • • • K   M9, P128/PF5504
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • P   P295/PF5866/S8
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • R   M207/UTY2

    "Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015," ISOGG yDNA page <http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_YDNATreeTrunk.html> 5 July 2015.

R   M207/UTY2
• R1   M173/P241
• • R1b   M343/PF6242
• • • R1b1   L278
• • • • R1b1a   L754/PF6269
• • • • • R1b1a1   L388/L389/PF6468
• • • • • • R1b1a1a   P297/PF6398
• • • • • • • R1b1a1a2   M269
• • • • • • • • R1b1a1a2a   L23/PF6534/S141
• • • • • • • • • R1b1a1a2a1   L51/M412/PF6536/S167
• • • • • • • • • • R1b1a1a2a1a   L151/PF6542, P310, P311, L11
• • • • 
• • • • • • • R1b1a1a2a1a2   P312/PF6547/S116
• • • • • • • • • • • • R1b1a1a2a1a2a   DF27/S250

    "Y-DNA Haplogroup R and it's Subclades 2015," ISOGG yDNA page <http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_HapgrpR.html> 3 May 2016.

2. Archaeological Periods

We measure mankind's progress toward our modern world and divide his achievements into periods by his manufacture and use of tools and the development of technology. These Archaeological Periods are given names for the materials from which those tools were made: the Stone Age, the Bronze Age, the Iron Age, etc. And, the dates for the many periods of man's development vary depending on where man lived in the ancient world.

Archaeological Periods by Continent and Region: Near East

Paleolithic Lower Paleolithic
2,600,000 –  300,000 BCE
Middle Paleolithic
  300,000 –   40,000 BCE
Upper Paleolithic
   40,000 –   19,000 BCE
Mesolithic Stage 1
   18,800 –   12,150 BCE
Stage 2
   11,140 –    9,500 BCE
Neolithic Early Neolithic
   10,000 –    8,500 BCE
Middle Neolithic
    8,500 –    6,500 BCE
Late Neolithic
    6,500 –    4,500 BCE
Copper/ Eneolithic Age
    4,500 –    3,300 BCE
Bronze Age
    3,300 –    1,200 BCE

Archaeological Periods by Continent and Region: Western Europe

Iron Age
    1,100 –        1 CE
        1 –      400 CE
Early medieval period
      400 –      800 CE
Medieval period
      800 –    1,500 CE
Post-medieval period
    1,500 –    1,800 CE
    1,800 CE to present
    "List of Archeological Periods," Wikipedia  <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_archaeological_periods> 10 June 2015.

3. Locating pre-historic Man: The Genographic Project

The Genographic Project was created by the National Geographic Society as "an ambitious attempt to answer fundamental questions about where we originated and how we came to populate the Earth."

I became aware of the Genographic Project in about 2006 after I submitted my first yDNA test. FTDNA provided a link where you could contribute your test results to the Genographic Project for a minimal contribution ($25).

When humans first ventured out of Africa some 60,000 years ago, they left genetic footprints still visible today. By mapping the appearance and frequency of genetic markers in modern peoples, we create a picture of when and where ancient humans moved around the world. These great migrations eventually led the descendants of a small group of Africans to occupy even the farthest reaches of the Earth.

    "The Human Journey," National Geographic Genographic Project <https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/human-journey/> 12 July 2015.

4. The History of the Indo-European Languages

Today, we speak English. It is evident from everyday speech that English evolved from German. So if everyone can trace English back to German, can anyone trace German back through the many changes to its mother language?

This is when:

Linguists and philologists have traced the English language to it's origin:
-to early German
-to a split with Baltic-Slav c. 2,740 BCE
-to an earlier split with Celt-Italic c. 3,280 BCE
-to the first split of the Indo-European language c. 4,000 BCE
-to the Indo-European language which emerged perhaps about 5,000 BCE

Samara culture was a Neolithic culture of the late 6th and early 5th millennium BC at the Samara bend region of the middle Volga, discovered during archaeological excavations in 1973 near the village of Syezzheye in Russia. The valley of the Samara river contains sites from subsequent cultures as well, which are descriptively termed "Samara cultures" or "Samara valley cultures". Some of these sites are currently under excavation. "The Samara culture" as a proper name, however, is reserved for the early Eneolithic [early Bronze Age, c. 4,000 BCE] of the region. . .

    "Samara Culture" <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samara_culture> 16 July 2015.

This is where:

These three cultures (the Samara, and successors the Khvalynsk and early Yamna) have roughly the same range. Marija Gimbutas was the first to regard it as the Urheimat (homeland) of the Proto-Indo-European language and to hypothesize that the Eneolithic culture of the region was in fact Proto-Indo-European. If this model is true, then the Samara culture becomes overwhelmingly important for Indo-European studies.

    "Samara Culture" <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samara_culture> 16 July 2015.


Linguistically proved contacts between earliest stages of Indo-European and Uralian strongly suggest a homeland in the forest steppes north of the Black Sea ('Pontus', cf. e.g. Anthony 2007).

    "A Possible Homeland of the Indo-European Languages" <http://www.hjholm.de> 15 July 2015.

I wonder, "Who lived north of the Black Sea in about 4,000 BCE?"

Having worked backwards to the Proto-Indo-European language, we can work forward to the languages spoken by the forefathers of DF27.

-from the Northwest branch of the Indo-European language which emerged c. 4,000 BCE
-to the Celt-Italic branch of NW Indo-European c. 3,280 BCE
-to the Proto-Celtic language c. 2,380 BCE
-to Q-Celt/ Goidelic/ Gaelic of NW Spain and Ireland

5. Synthesis

-Take the evolutionary history of a genetic marker (SNP DF27) from ISOGG.
-Overlay the archaeological time periods.
-Overlay the physical locations determined by the Genographic Project.
-Overlay the dates for the emergence of the Indo-European language and its subclades.
-And, we begin to see the migration history of our ancient ancestors.





A000   Root Y-Adam 200,000 BCE Middle Paleolithic Period.
Modern man emerges in Central Africa.
The original line of Homo Sapiens were Rh Negative.
Rh Positive is the mutation.


Rh Positive
(Not us)

* Lived vicinity Lake Victoria in Central Africa.
  P305 A0-T
drop A
100,000 BCE Lived vicinity Lake Victoria in Central Africa.
M42 B-T
drop B
 80,000 BCE Migrated from Central Africa to East Africa.
  M168 C-T
drop DE
 70,000 BCE Migrated from East Africa to the southern Arabian Peninsula.
P143 C-F
drop C
 60,000 BCE Migrated north on the Arabian Peninsula.
M89   *F
drop G
 55,000 BCE Settled in the Arabian Peninsula.
M578 H-K
drop H
 50,000 BCE Migrated from the Arabian Peninsula to the Tigris/ Euphrates River Valley.
drop IJ
 45,000 BCE Migrated from the Tigris/ Euphrates River Valley through Persia to the Steppes  of Uzbekistan.
Concurrently, Cro-Magnon Man settled in Europe.
drop LT, NO, S from O, & M
 42,000 BCE Settled on the Steppes in what would become Uzbekistan vicinity the Aral Sea.
*The rare Haplogroup K was passed down through few individuals which included Thomas Jefferson.
Additionally, red hair and blue eyes were the constant.
**"So being Rh negative isn't stranger than having blue eyes or red hair."

Blood Types, The Stanford Department of  Genetics <https://genetics.thetech.org/ask/ask381> 20 June 2018.

M45   P
drop Q from P
 35,000 BCE Upper Paleolithic Period.
This location is described as Point PQR.
Q migrated east toward Lake Baikal and the Bering Land Bridge.
M207   R
drop R2
 30,000 BCE Haplogroup R split while on the Steppes.
Base R migrated north to the Russian steppes.
(R2 migrated to India and Pakistan.)
drop R1a
 25,000 BCE Haplogroup R1 also split on the Steppes.
(R1a migrated northwest, eventually reaching eastern Europe and the Baltic Sea.)
M343   R1b  22,000-17,000 BCE Mesolithic Period.
Migration south and west to Persia.
L278   R1b1  17,000-10,000 BCE Early Neolithic Period.
Settled in the Tigris River Valley ***Refugium.
Began farming in the Tigris River Valley.
L754   R1b1a before 10,000 BCE Tigris River Valley
L388   R1b1a1 c. 10,000 BCE Tigris River Valley
P297   R1b1a1a

c. 8,800 BCE

Middle Neolithic Period.
Migrated north to the Caucasus Mountains.

M269   R1b1a1a2

c. 4,900 BCE

Late Neolithic Period.
pre 4,000 BCE
Spoke Proto-Indo-European.
Lived on the Pontic-Caspian Steppe north of the Black Sea.

L23   R1b1a1a2a

4,200-2,800 BCE

Copper/ Bronze Age
c. 4,000 Spoke a language of the Northwest branch of the Indo-European language.
c. 3.280 the Northwest branch of the Indo-European language splits into the Celt-Italic language.
Migrated west to the Danube Valley.


2,800-2,500 BCE

Lived vicinity of the northern Alps of Austria.
drop U106

c. 2,500 BCE

Lived in southern Germany.
U106 who spoke Proto-German migrated north to Saxony in Germany, the Netherlands, and across the Baltic Sea to what would become Norway.

c. 2,300 BCE

Proto Celtic culture.
Proto-Celt split from the Celt-Italic subclade.
Lived in Gaul (France), western Europe.

c. 2,250 BCE

Lives in Gascony/ Pyrenees-Atlantiques (France) and Gallaecia/ Asturias (Spain). Spoke Q-Celt/ Goidelic/Gaelic.
The Milesian(s) Invasion of Ireland post 1,000 BCE. Having populated Ireland, their descendants, the Scoti, went on to populate Scotland and Wales.

* Haplogroup F also contains G, H, I, J & K.
** Haplogroup K also contains LT, NO, M & P. O contains S, and P contains Q.
***A refugium is a protected place of refuge, perhaps a sheltered valley where early man survived the hardships of the last Ice Age. A well researched refugium is the Loire Valley of France going south to the Pyrenees and northern Spain as evidenced by the cave paintings at Lascaux, France.

This information is in part from the National Geographic Genographic Project where I am a contributor. The marker numbers in the preceding chart are the distinctive markers characteristic of the new Haplogroup which prove the mutation. The markers in bold are unique to the Genographic Project and do not correlate to ISOGG.

Other Lewis Haplogroups

U106 R1b1a2a1a1

Proto German. Spoke early German.
Forefathers of the Saxon Invaders to England c. 500 CE

M253 I1a

Viking Europe.
The Danish Invaders of York, England c. 886 CE

6. Developing a History

A Pre-History of Haplogroup R

When humans first ventured out of Africa some 60,000 years ago, they left genetic footprints still visible today. By mapping the appearance and frequency of genetic markers in modern peoples, we create a picture of when and where ancient humans moved around the world. These great migrations eventually led the descendants of a small group of Africans to occupy even the farthest reaches of the Earth.

    "The Human Journey," National Geographic <https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/human-journey/> 12 July 2015.

Root (Y-Adam)
• A0-T   AF3, L1085
• • • • BT   M91
• • • • • CT   M168/PF1416
• • • • • • CF   P143/PF2587
• • • • • • • F   L132.1, M89/PF2746
• • • • • • • • GHIJK   F1329/M3658/PF2622/YSC0001299
• • • • • • • • • HIJK   F929/M578/PF3494/S6397
• • • • • • • • • • IJK   L15/M523/PF3492/S137
• • • • • • • • • • • • K   M9, P128/PF5504
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • P   P295/PF5866/S8
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • R   M207/UTY2

    "Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree 2015," ISOGG yDNA page <http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_YDNATreeTrunk.html> 3 May 2016.

1. As previously stated, the progress of modern man toward our modern world is measured by his manufacture and use of tools and the development of technology and is characterized by the materials he used. Anthropologists posit that modern man, Homo Sapiens Sapiens [A000], emerged in Africa in about 200,000 BCE during the Middle Paleolithic Period.
2. Modern human's first family, Haplogroup A, began mutating back when our forefathers were still in Africa. Other haplogroups went off on their own; but, we the folks who descend from Haplogroups F then K then P then R were not the first out of Africa.

3. Haplogroup F [M89] left out of Africa in  about 55,000 BCE behind some of the other haplogroups. They migrated from eastern Africa to the northern Arabian Peninsula. Why did Haplogroup F leave Africa? Many posit that the coming Ice Age changed the climate and restricted resources. They left Africa for their own survival.

4. Haplogroup K [M9] followed other haplogroups through the Tigris/ Euphrates River Valley then east through Persia then north into what is now Uzbekistan. They settled on the Steppes in the vicinity of the Aral Sea in about 42,000 BCE. This locale has been described as Point PQR, the birthplace of those three haplogroups. Note: Concurrently, Cro-Magnon Man settled in Europe.

    "Haplo R Migration Theory Map," <https://www.google.com/maps> 10 July 2015.

5. In about 35,000 BCE, Haplogroup P [M45] split from K and inhabited the Steppes at the advent of the Upper Paleolithic Period.

Haplogroup Q [M242] split from P. They and their descendants went all the way across Siberia then across the Bering land bridge to North America and are the forefathers of the American Indians. Stone Age Amerindians took their Stone Age technology, but not the domestication of the horse, and not the Indo-European language to the Americas where they were eventually confronted by modern technology in the form of the Conquistadors.

R   M207/UTY2
• R1   M173/P241
• • R1b   M343/PF6242
• • • R1b1   L278
• • • • R1b1a   L754/PF6269
• • • • • R1b1a1   L388/L389/PF6468
• • • • • • R1b1a1a   P297/PF6398
• • • • • • • R1b1a1a2   M269
• • • • • • • • R1b1a1a2a   L23/PF6534/S141
• • • • • • • • • R1b1a1a2a1   L51/M412/PF6536/S167
• • • • • • • • • • R1b1a1a2a1a   L151/PF6542, P310, P311, L11
• • • • 
• • • • • • • R1b1a1a2a1a2   P312/PF6547/S116
• • • • • • • • • • • • R1b1a1a2a1a2a   DF27/S250

    "Y-DNA Haplogroup R and it's Subclades 2015," ISOGG yDNA page <http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_HapgrpR.html> 3 May 2016.

6. In about 30,000 BCE, Haplogroup R [M207] also split from P while on the Steppes. Base R [M207] migrated north to the Russian steppes. R2 [M479] went to India and Pakistan.

7. In about 25,000 BCE, Haplogroup R1 [M173] emerged on the eastern shore of the Caspian Sea. Where they went is unknown. Haplogroup R1 also split on the Steppes. In about 22,000 R1a [L146] split from R1. Later, they migrated northwest to the Baltic coast in eastern Europe.

8. In about 22,000 BCE, Haplogroup R1b [M343] migrated south then west to Persia. Why did M343 return to Persia from whence they had come so many years before? Was their path blocked by the European Ice Sheet?

9. Somewhere between 22,000 BCE and 17,000 BCE, modern man began again to migrate. Why did our forefathers sojourn on the Uzbek Steppes for almost 25,000 years? Was it the coming and finally the going of the last Ice Age? In about 17,000 BCE, the North European Ice Sheet finally reached its maximum extent. And as the ice melted, modern man followed it north into new lands.
Note: The previously reported migrations of M242, M207, M479, and L146 were most probably delayed until the European Ice Sheet began to retreat northward.

From 17,000 BCE to about 10,000 BCE during the Early Neolithic Period, Haplogroup R1b1 [L278] survived the Younger Dryas stadial (the Big Freeze) at the end of the last Ice Age in the vicinity of the Tigris River Valley, enjoying their own version of the Ice Age refugium.

While in the Tigris River Valley, R1b1a [L754] emerged from L278. And before 10,000 BCE R1b1a1 [L388] emerged from L754.

10. In about 8,800 BCE just before the Middle Neolithic Period, R1b1a1a [P297] emerged from the valleys and caves of the Tigris River Valley refugium and migrated north, following the retreating ice through the Gates of the Caucasus and the Greater Caucasus Mountains.

11. R1b1a1a2 [M269] lived through the Late Neolithic Period c. 4,900 BCE on the Pontic-Caspian Steppe north of the Black Sea. Pre 4,000 BCE, this location is believed to be the Urheimat (ancient homeland) of the Proto-Indo-European language. And, they are the possible forefathers of the Kurgan culture.

Late Neolithic Period.
pre 4,000 BCE
Spoke Proto-Indo-European.
Lived on the Pontic-Caspian Steppe north of the Black Sea.

12. From about 4,200 to 2,800 BCE, R1b1a1a2a [L23] migrated west into the Danube River Valley during the the Copper/ Bronze Age. And as modern men still do today, they headed up the valley.
*And, a branch of L23 went south to the Greek Peninsula c. 1800 BCE.

They spoke a language of the Northwest branch of the Indo-European language. Around 3.280 BCE the Northwest branch of the Indo-European language splits into the Celt-Italic language.

13. From 2,800 to 2,500 BCE, R1b1a1a2a1 [L51] migrated up the Danube River Valley to the vicinity of the Hungarian Plain and the Austrian Alps where they settled. This was the early Bronze Age where they developed new technologies. Here, they spoke a Proto-Celt-Italic language.

The peoples of L51 are cited as factors of the Unetice Culture (2,300 to 1,700 BCE) of Central Europe. It is absolutely reasonable to conclude that the descendents of L51, who did not continue the mass migration west, were part of that culture.

Anthropologists have suggested that the descendants of M269 were the factors of the subsequent Hallstatt Culture (1,200 to 500 BCE) of Austria. But this branch of M269 passed through Austria almost 2,000 years before the estimated time of the Hallstatt Culture.

14. In about 2,500 BCE, R1b1a1a2a1a [L11] migrated north and settled in the Black Forest from the headwaters of the Danube River (vic Regensburg) west toward Freiberg in what is now southern Germany.

At this point there was a major split in not only the subclades of L11 but also in culture and language. Whether or not L11 was part of the the Hallstatt Culture of Bronze Age Austria, we the descendants of L11 possessed some Hallstatt influence and Bronze Age technology. From southern Germany and France, we took these skills and new branches of the Indo-European language to dispersed locations in western Europe.

15a. R1b1a1a2a1a1 [U106]:
The Germanic branch are the forefathers of the Saxon Invaders to England. They emerged from L11 in about 2,300 BCE and spread north and northwest from southern Germany to Saxony, the Netherlands, and across the Baltic Sea to what would become Norway. They spoke proto-German.

15b. R1b1a1a2a1a2 [P312]:
The Gauls aka the Proto Celts migrated west across the Rhine River Valley and settled in Gaul (France) in about 2,300 BCE. They are the forefathers of all Gaelic peoples. They spoke the proto-Celtic language which had just split from Celt-Italic.
Their descendants split into at least six individual branches, migrating to Gallaecia on the Iberian Peninsula, over the Alps into northern Italy, from Calais to Britain and across the Irish Sea to Ireland, and up the Jutland Peninsula and across the Baltic Sea to Scandinavia.

Descendants of P312

• • • • • • • • • • R1b1a1a2a1a2a   DF27/S250
• • • • • • • • • • R1b1a1a2a1a2b   PF6570/S28/U152
• • • • • • • • • • R1b1a1a2a1a2c   L21/M529/S145
• • • • • • • • • • R1b1a1a2a1a2d   L238/S182
• • • • • • • • • • R1b1a1a2a1a2e   DF19/S232
• • • • • • • • • • R1b1a1a2a1a2f   DF99/S11987

    "Y-DNA Haplogroup R and it's Subclades 2015," ISOGG yDNA page <http://www.isogg.org/tree/ISOGG_HapgrpR.html> 5 July 2015.

16a. R1b1a1a2a1a2a [DF27/S250]:
The Gascon/ Iberian Celts migrated southwest to the Iberian Peninsula in about 2,250 BCE. Their migration route took them through Gascony/ Pyrenees-Atlantiques (France). Perhaps some settled there. They left their DNA and their blood type and their technology; but not their language amongst the Basque peoples.

The Iberian Celts continued their migration southwest into the Douro Valley and then south to the region of Beira Alta and its capitol, Guarda, in what is now Portugal. Here, the Lusitanians settled. They spoke the proto-Celtic Lusitanian language.

The Gaelic Celts continued their migration, this time north to the northwest coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the regions of Gallaecia and Asturias in what is now Spain. They spoke q-Celt/ Goidelic/ Gaelic.

The Bronze Age did not appear in Iberia until 1800 BCE, and was mostly confined to the cultures of El Argar and Los Millares in south-east Spain, with sporadic sites showing up in Castile by 1700 BCE and in Extremadura and southern Portugal by 1500 BCE. These Early Bronze Age sites typically did not have more than some bronze daggers or axes and cannot be considered proper Bronze Age societies, but rather Copper Age societies with occasional bronze artefacts (perhaps imported). These cultures might have been founded by small groups of R1b adventurers looking for easy conquests in parts of Europe that did not yet have bronze weapons. They would have become a small ruling elite, would have had children with local women, and within a few generations their Indo-European language would have been lost, absorbed by the indigenous languages.

Iberia did not become a fully-fledged Bronze Age society until the 13th century BCE, when the Urnfield culture (1300-1200 BCE) expanded from Germany to Catalonia via southern France, then the ensuing Hallstatt culture (1200-750 BCE) spread throughout most of the peninsula (especially the western half). This period belongs to the wider Atlantic Bronze Age (1300-700 BCE), when Iberia was connected to the rest of Western Europe through a complex trade network. . .

The Atlantic Bronze Age could correspond to the period when DF27 radiated more evenly around Iberia and ended up, following Atlantic trade routes, all the way to the British Isles, the Netherlands and western Norway (where M153 and SRY2728 make up about 1% of the population).

    "Haplogroup R1b" <http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_R1b_Y-DNA.shtml> 26 July 2015.

Our people are the Milesians of Irish Mythology. They settled in Gallaecia on the northwest coast of the Iberian Peninsula where they became a trading nation along the Atlantic coast. Our people eventually worked their way up the coast of the Celtic Sea in their little round boats, most probably landing in Armorica (Brittany, France). From Armorica, they crossed the Irish Sea to Ireland.

In the Lebor Gabαla Ιrenn, a medieval Christian pseudo-history of Ireland, the Milesians are the Gaels who came from Iberia and settled in Ireland. They represent the Irish people. They are named after the character Mνl Espαine, which is the Irish form of the Latin Miles Hispaniae ("Soldier of Hispania").

    "Milesians (Irish)" <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milesians_(Irish)> 17 July 2015.

According to Lebor Gabαla Ιrenn, the "Book of the Taking of Ireland," in about 1,000 BCE, the Milesians sailed across the Celtic Sea and became the Over Kings of  Ireland. Having populated Ireland, their descendants, the Scoti, went on to populate Scotland and Wales.

The descendants of DF27 (post 1,000 BCE) who remained in Iberia spoke Gallaecian. Their cousins, the Celtiberians of southwestern Spain, arrived earlier and spoke, not a different dialect, but a different q-Celt language.

Further reading:
-"Milesians, the Myth" <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milesians_(Irish)> 17 July 2015.
-"The Story of the Irish Race" <http://homepage.eircom.net/~kthomas/history.htm> 17 July 2015.

16b. R1b1a1a2a1a2b [U152/S28]:
The Italo-Alpine Celts spoke p-Celt/ Gaulish. In about 1,200 BCE, they migrated to the upper Rhein River Valley and into the Hinterrhein in what is now Switzerland. And from there, they migrated over the Alps and down into what is now Italy. They most probably were the speakers of the Lepontic language, a proto-Cisalpine Gaulish language of Switzerland and southern Germany. 

16c. R1b1a1a2a1a2c [L21/S145/M529]:
The Atlantic Celts have been described as the quintessential Gaelic paternal lineage. In 2,100 BCE, L21 crossed the English Channel to settle in England, Wales, and then Ireland. Coincidently, the Bronze Age began in Ireland about 2,100 BCE. Is this possibly because these Celts took Bronze Age technology to to the distant corners of Europe?

Originally, all the descendants of L21 spoke p-Celt; as L21 spread their language throughout the British Isles. However, the descendants of DF27 brought q-Celt/ Gaelic to Ireland. And their descendants, the Scoti, took q-Celt/ Gaelic to Scotland. Today, the Irish and Scot Celts speak q-Celt/ Goidelic/ Gaelic. The Welsh Celts speak p-Celt/ Gallo-Brittonic. Of note, 45% of men in Wales are projected to be S145.

16d. R1b1a1a2a1a2d [L238/S182]:
The Nordic Celts spoke p-Celt/ Gallo-Brittonic. They migrated most probably through the Jutland Peninsula to Scandinavia. Descendants of L238 who settled on the Jutland Peninsula are potentially the forefathers of the Jutes.

16e. R1b1a1a2a1a2e [DF19/S232]:
The Angle Celts spoke p-Celt/ Gallo-Brittonic. They settled on the lower Jutland Peninsula where their neighbors were L238 (the Jutes) to the north and U106 (the Saxons) to the south.

16f. R1b1a1a2a1a2f [DF99/S11987]:
The Belgique Celts spoke P-Celt/ Gallo-Brittonic. Currently, persons who test positive for DF99 have their lineage from many locations. However, there appears to be a pattern from P312 in Gaul through the Netherlands and Belgium to Britain.

My Map of Haplogroup R Migrations on Google Maps.

7. Conclusions

Through the appearance of individual markers on the human genome, our ancestor's path out of Africa into Southwest Asia and then to Western Europe has been proven. It's actually a simple process: a) match the locations of the donors to the SNP markers found b) play connect the dots. With the addition of dates from ancient archaeological periods and the evolution of the Indo-European language, we can approximate where our ancestors were during specific times along the timeline of human history.

Tracing the evolution of SNP R-DF27, we learn that we, the families who descend from the Lewis family of Virginia, carry the genes of the Milesians, the Celtic Invaders of Ireland post 1,000 BCE. Our Celtic cousins, L21, were some of the original settlers of Ireland c. 2,100 BCE. And, their DNA is the dominant strain in Ireland, Scotland, Wales and Cornwall; not ours.

We are the pirates and raiders as described in the Welsh language. We are the interlopers who draped Britain with an overlay of Celtic language, art and culture both before and after the Roman Invasion.

8. The Milesians

Who were the Milesians? According to Irish mythology, the Milesians originally came from the Greek city of Milieus in Asia Minor. There is a history/ myth which states that the Milesians sailed south in their little round boats and sojourned in Egypt during the time of the Israelites. Departing Egypt, they sailed west to the shores of Spain. And from the northwest corner of Spain, they sailed north to Ireland. Perhaps one day, there will be a detailed study of the elusive Milesians and their overarching Celtic culture.

They came from a land beyond the sea,
And now o'er the western main
Set sail, in their good ships, gallantly,
From the sunny land of Spain.
'Oh, where's the Isle we've seen in dreams,
Our destin'd home or grave?'
Thus sung they as, by the morning's beams,
They swept the Atlantic wave.

And, lo, where afar o'er ocean shines
A sparkle of radiant green,
As though in that deep lay emerald mines,
Whose light through the wave was seen.
''Tis Innisfail—'tis Innisfail!'
Rings o'er the echoing sea;
While, bending to heav'n, the warriors hail
That home of the brave and free.

Then turn'd they unto the Eastern wave,
Where now their Day-God's eye
A look of such sunny omen gave
As lighted up sea and sky.
Nor frown was seen through sky or sea,
Nor tear o'er leaf or sod,
When first on their Isle of Destiny
Our great forefathers trod.

    "Moore's Melodies," Atlas and Cyclopedia of Ireland, 1900 <http://www.libraryireland.com/Atlas/Home.php> 12 July 2015.

The Book of Invasions ends with the Milesians, or Sons of Mνl Espαine, the first Gaelic speakers and probably the earliest “Celtic” people.  They are thought to have brought iron to Ireland, representing the beginning of the Iron Age.  During their invasion, the wives of the Irish High Kings, and matron Goddesses of Ireland, Banba, Fodla and Ιriu, asked that the new land be named in their honour.  The name Ιire remains a poetic name for Ireland today.  The Tuatha Dι Danann were exiled underground, where they represent the sidhe, or faery folk, of Ireland.

    "The Celtic Journey," <https://thecelticjourney.wordpress.com/tag/milesians/> 17 July 2015.

Research Note: The Iron Age began as early as 1,200 BCE in the area of Galatia in Anatolia (modern Turkey). Did our Celtic ancestors trade with their Galatian cousins of Asia Minor? We know that the Celts of farthest southern Spain, the Celtici, traded with the Phoenicians and their descendants, the Carthaginians, who traded with the Greek cities of Asia Minor. Did our Gallaecian ancestors learn about working iron from their Galtaian cousins in Asia Minor?


This site is provided for reference only. Except where specifically cited, information contained is conjecture and should not be considered as fact.
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